Fish books. Books on fishes.Books on fishkeeping


Synthetic Seawaters for Aquaria and Laboratories. A Calypso Research Report. 1979
All types comprehensively discussed , all published formulae analysed and new formulae proposed *

Primary researchers( 1968-1978) : G.H.Jennings,MBA  J.B.Clark,B.Sc

ISBN: 0906301 00 9   2/1/78

The Calypso Research report on Synthetic Seawaters was, and is, the primary source of most modern documents. It is unfortunate that many of these, including the entry in Wikipedia do not acknowledge the debt owed to this pioneering document.

* Meereswasser, Bundo-to, Instant Ocean, Marina, Red Sea Salts, Lyman and Fleming, Challenger, Synthetica, M70, and many many more..........

 Synthetic Seawater. Preface

It is very possible to prepare solutions that duplicate the properties of sea water. There may be problems encountered along the way because (a) the ions (salts) in which the elements occur in sea water may vary, (b) elements that occur in sea water in small amounts are present as contaminants in other compounds in quantities which may far exceed those that should be added, and (c) many of the salts which must be added in fairly large amounts are hygroscopic or contain water of crystallization and are difficult to weigh accurately. The latter difficulty may be partially avoided by the use of formula or recipes which take this into account.

Synthetic Seawaters for Laboratories and aquaria. Artificial seawater

Although it would be of great interest to prepare solutions duplicating all the physical and chemical properties of sea water, it is generally not essential. In studies of certain of the physical-chemical properties, it is sufficient to add to the solution only the more abundant ions. In other instances—for example, when chemical methods are to be standardized—only one element or ion need be accurately known and other ions only approximately. Furthermore, in experiments with marine plants the major elements may not have to be closely controlled, but it will generally be necessary to know the concentrations of the biologically essential elements that are normally present in small amounts. If possible, natural sea water should always be used in physical or biological studies, but in the latter case it is sometimes desirable to enrich the water with certain of the plant nutrients. 

Synthetic Seawaters suggests formulae for preparing solutions both approximating the composition of natural sea water and exactly specifying a standard seawater and regional variations. They have been adjusted to a standard chlorinity. The formulae  contains suggestions regarding the nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon needed by marine plants. Additional elements may be necessary but care should be taken as these are probably always present as impurities. The formulae of Brujewicz (Subow, 1931) and of Lyman and FIeming (1940) contain only the major elements. The last-mentioned formula is fully discussed in the main text. All other formulae have  been adjusted to a standard chlorinity . In all cases the reagents used should be of the highest quality; analysed for contaminants and, if necessary, purified.

Keywords: Synthetic, Seawaters, artificial, seawater, chemistry, Laboratories, oceanography, formula,recipe, formulae,Synthetic Sea Water Recipe, synthetic sea water, synthetic sea, sea water, sea water recipe, synthetic sea recipe

Links to similar articles and data on synthetic seawater formulation and usage:

Basic Guide to the Chemistry of Sea Water Aquariums and Synthetic Seawaters

The Lab Rat

Seawater - Its Composition. Properties and Behaviour.

Seawater - Its Composition. Properties and Behaviour.
The Open University. 1992


 Calypso Publications  Registered at London 2225933 1978  established in 1978 as the publishing arm of Calypso

Anyone wishing to follow on further information regarding the contents of this site is encouraged to visit  and   

Website design and production by Gerald Jennings.  Copyright ©  The Calypso Organization 2018