Synthetic Seawaters for Aquaria and
Laboratories. A Calypso Research Report. 1979
All types comprehensively discussed , all published formulae analysed and new
formulae proposed *
Primary researchers( 1968-1978) : G.H.Jennings,MBA
ISBN: 0906301 00 9 2/1/78
The Calypso Research report on Synthetic Seawaters was, and is, the primary
source of most modern documents. It is unfortunate that many of these, including
the entry in Wikipedia do not acknowledge the debt owed to this pioneering
* Meereswasser, Bundo-to, Instant Ocean,
Marina, Red Sea Salts, Lyman and Fleming, Challenger, Synthetica, M70, and many
It is very possible to prepare solutions that duplicate the
properties of sea water. There may be problems encountered along the way because
(a) the ions (salts) in which the elements occur in sea water may vary, (b)
elements that occur in sea water in small amounts are present as contaminants in
other compounds in quantities which may far exceed those that should be added,
and (c) many of the salts which must be added in fairly large amounts are
hygroscopic or contain water of crystallization and are difficult to weigh
accurately. The latter difficulty may be partially avoided by the use of formula
or recipes which take this into account.
Although it would be of great interest to prepare solutions
duplicating all the physical and chemical properties of sea water, it is
generally not essential. In studies of certain of the physical-chemical
properties, it is sufficient to add to the solution only the more abundant ions.
In other instances—for example, when chemical methods are to be
standardized—only one element or ion need be accurately known and other ions
only approximately. Furthermore, in experiments with marine plants the major
elements may not have to be closely controlled, but it will generally be
necessary to know the concentrations of the biologically essential elements that
are normally present in small amounts. If possible, natural sea water should
always be used in physical or biological studies, but in the latter case it is
sometimes desirable to enrich the water with certain of the plant nutrients.
Synthetic Seawaters suggests formulae for preparing solutions both approximating
the composition of natural sea water and exactly specifying a standard seawater
and regional variations. They have been adjusted to a standard chlorinity. The formulae contains suggestions
regarding the nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon needed by marine plants.
Additional elements may be necessary but care should be taken as these are
probably always present as impurities. The formulae of Brujewicz (Subow, 1931)
and of Lyman and FIeming (1940) contain only the major elements. The
last-mentioned formula is fully discussed in the main text. All other formulae
have been adjusted to a standard chlorinity . In all cases the reagents used
should be of the highest quality; analysed for contaminants and, if necessary, purified.
Keywords: Synthetic, Seawaters, artificial, seawater,
chemistry, Laboratories, oceanography, formula,recipe, formulae,Synthetic Sea
Water Recipe, synthetic sea water, synthetic sea, sea water, sea water recipe,
synthetic sea recipe
Links to similar articles and data on synthetic seawater formulation and
Basic Guide to the Chemistry of
Sea Water Aquariums
and Synthetic Seawaters
The Lab Rat
Seawater - Its Composition.
Properties and Behaviour.
Seawater - Its Composition. Properties and Behaviour.
The Open University. 1992